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Mesothelioma Dictionary

Mesothelioma Dictionary of Legal & Medical Terms
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R

Radiation
Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. Radiation can be classified as ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, depending on its effect on atomic matter. The most common use of the word "radiation" refers to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation has enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules while non-ionizing radiation does not. Radioactive material is a physical material that emits ionizing radiation.
Radiation Oncologist
Specializing in treating cancer with radiation.
Radiation Therapist
Therapist that has had training in the equipment used to give radiation.
Radiation Therapy
High energy rays used on damaged cancer cells, stopping them from growing and dividing. Like surgery, radiation therapy is a local treatment that affects cancer cells only in the treated area. 1. Rays of high energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy waves often used in medicine. 2. Use of energy waves to diagnose or treat disease. See also: Irradiation.
Radical Prostatectomy
Surgery that removes the prostate gland, the seminal vesicles and nearby tissue.
Radiculomyelopathy
Disease of the spinal cord.
Radiofrequency Ablation
A nonsurgical procedureused to treat some types of rapid heart beating. It's most often used to treat supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. These are rapid, uncoordinated heartbeats. They start in the heart's upper chambers (atria) or middle region (AV node or the very beginning portion of the heart's electrical system).
Radiographic Changes
Irregular opacities in the lung bases that extend into the upper lung that appear on x-ray films. The changes may be pleural thickening with subsequent pleural plaques.
Radioisotope
An atom that is unstable and prone to break up. This break up gives off small amounts of atoms and energy. Radioisotopes can also be used to treat cancer. During some tests, radioisotopes are injected into the blood. They travel through the body and collect in areas where the disease is active, showing up as highlighted areas on the pictures. Radioisotopes can be used in imaging tests or as a treatment for cancer.
Radiologic Technologist
Health professional that is not a doctor, who is trained to position patients for x-rays, take the images, and then develop and check the images for quality. The films taken by the technologist are sent to a radiologist to be read.
Radiologist
A doctor who trained in the use of x-rays to diagnose and treat disease.
Radiology
Use of radiation such as x-rays or other imaging technologies such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose or treat disease.
Radionuclide Bone Scan
Small amount of radioisotope is used to produce images of the bones.
Radiosensitive
Easier affected by radiation
Rales
Abnormal lung sounds accompanying normal respiratory sounds. They show inflammation, fluid, or infection in the air sacs of the lung.
Raltitrexed
Antineoplastic agent that stops tumor cells from multiplying by interfering with the cells ability to make DNA
Randomized Trial
Experiment arranged to produce a random distribution of subjects into different treatment groups or arms.
Receptor
Protein-binding site on a cell's surface or interior. When chemicals bind to receptors, various cellular functions are activated or inhibited. Viruses enter cells by fusing with receptors on the cell surface.
RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors)
A set of published rules that define when cancer patients improve ("respond"), stay the same ("stable"), or worsen ("progression") during treatments. The criteria were published in February, 2000 by an international collaboration including the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the United States, and the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Today, the majority of clinical trials evaluating cancer treatments for objective response in solid tumors are using RECIST.
Recombinant
Made by genetic engineering.
Reconstitution
Restoring to functionality.
Recover/Recovery
Judgment of money from an award. The money “recovered” is called the “recovery.” The recovery is usually for an amount agreed to in settlement of the case or awarded by the court or jury. (See Award, Judgment)
Recurrence
Disease that has come back after a period of time.
Recurrent Cancer
Cancer that has come back after treatment. Local recurrence is when the cancer comes back at the same place as the original cancer. Regional recurrence is when the cancer appears in the lymph nodes near the first site. Distant recurrence is when it appears in organs or tissues farther from the original site than the regional lymph nodes. Metastasis means that the disease has recurred at a distant site.
Recurrent mesothelioma
The tumor has shown up after treatment.
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
Cells in blood that bring oxygen to tissues and take carbon dioxide from them.
Red Blood Count (RBC)
Number of red blood cells in a blood sample.
Referral Authorization
Approval to see a physician or access services outside of the participating medical group.
Referral Physician
A physician who sees a patient after another doctor has sent them for specialty care or services.
Referral
A primary physician may seek expert consultation in cases by referring the patient to a specialist.
Referring Physician
A physician who sends a patient to another doctor for specialty care or services.
Refractory
Resistant to treatment.
Regimen (rej-uh-men)
A strict, controlled plan such as diet, exercise, or other activity designed to reach certain goals. In cancer treatment; a plan to treat cancer.
Regional Involvement
Spreading of cancer from its original site to nearby areas, but not to distant sites such as other organs.
Regional Recurrence
Cancer that has returned to the location close to where the original cancer.
Regression
Cancer growth that has become smaller.
Rehabilitation
Activities that help a person adjust, heal, and return to a full, productive life after injury or illness. This may involve physical restoration such as prostheses, exercises, and physical therapy, counseling, and emotional support.
Relapse
Disease or cancer that has come back after a period of time. See recurrence.
Release
Signed document to settle claims and get settlement money.
Remission
Condition where no cancerous cells can be found by a microscope, and the patient appears to be disease-free.
Remittitur
Judge determines that the jury’s verdict for the plaintiff is too high and orders that an amount of money be subtracted from the total.
Renal
Referring to the kidneys.
Reply
Refers to the Defendant’s written response to the allegations made by the Plaintiff in the Plaintiff’s pleadings, but a Plaintiff can also be in the position of filing a Reply document.
Request for Production
A demand by one party during the discovery process that the other party must disclose certain documents connected to a lawsuit.
Rescue Treatment
Treatment such as a bone marrow transplantation that restore a patient's immune system and blood-forming organs from the effects of high dose chemotherapy.
Resectable
The surgical removal of a diseased portion of a tissue.
Resection
Surgery that removes part or all of an organ or other structure.
Reservoir
Place where infectious cells collect and multiply.
Resistance
the ability of a microorganism such as a virus to mutate so that it loses its sensitivity to a drug.
Respiratory Alkalosis
Condition that has less carbon dioxide than normal. It is a sign of over-breathing in compensation for lack of elasticity in the lungs.
Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)
A set of published rules that define when cancer patients improve ("respond"), stay the same ("stable"), or worsen ("progression") during treatments. The criteria were published in February, 2000 by an international collaboration including the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the United States, and the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Today, the majority of clinical trials evaluating cancer treatments for objective response in solid tumors are using RECIST.
Restrictive Lung Disease
Reducing the amount a lung can hold, due to reduction in the lungs elasticity. Asbestosis is considered a restrictive lung disease. Fibrosis reduces the lung's elasticity, and a "stiff lung" condition reduces all volumes and capacities of the lungs. Vital capacity and total lung volume decrease proportionately, and there is more rapid breathing to compensate for diminished lung capacity.
Retain
Hiring a lawyer; usually done in writing with a retainer.
Retainer
Formal agreement between a lawyer and client delineating terms for payment and settlement as well as legal representation and jurisdiction.
Retinitis
Swelling of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eyeball.
Retrospective Study
Study on the medical records of patients, looking at events that happened in the past.
Retrosternal
Occurring behind or in the sternum.
Retrovirus
Type of viruses that have genetic material in the form of RNA and use reverse transcriptase to translate their RNA into DNA. The retrovirus family includes oncoviruses and lentiviruses.
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (RTI)
Drug that stops retroviral replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme that allows a retrovirus to translate its genetic material RNA into DNA. RTI include nucleoside analogs such as AZT, ddI, 3TC and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like nevirapine.
Rhamnose Binding Protein
Protein that binds the sugar rhamnose (see Receptor)
Ribonucleotide Reductase
Viral enzyme which cuts ribonucleotides in order to create deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. Ribonucleotide reductase is essential for DNA replication. Drugs like hydroxyurea that inhibit ribonucleotide reductase may enhance the activity of nucleoside analog drugs.
Risk Factor
Anything that can increase the development of cancer, for example, asbestos exposure and mesothelioma.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
Single-stranded nucleic acid made up of nucleotides. RNA is involved in the making of genetic information; the information encoded in DNA is translated into messenger RNA, which controls the making of new proteins.
Rupture Of Membranes (ROM)
Breaking open of the amniotic sac surrounding the fetu
RV
Stands for residual volume it is a measure of lung function.

Disclaimer: Mesothelioma Help Center’s Dictionary of Legal & Medical Terms is not designed to provide medical advice or professional services and is intended to be for educational use only. The information provided through Mesothelioma Help Center is not a substitute for professional care and should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. If you have, or suspect you may have, a health problem you should consult your doctor. If you need legal help you should consult an experienced mesothelioma lawyer.

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Mesothelioma Symptoms

The most common Mesothelioma symptoms are the following:

Recent onset of shortness of breath (31%)
Recent increase in shortness of breath (30%)
Chest pain (43%)
 
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